TRACE FOSSILS

DESCRIPTION - Trace Fossils, also called Ichnofossils, are evidence of biological activity in the fossil record that don't include the actual  parts of the animal or plant. These can include footprints, burrows, and trails.

SELECTED REFERENCES:

-Marintsch, Edward and Robert Finks. 1982. Lower Devonian Ichnofacies at Highland Mills, NY and their gradual displacement across environmental gradients. J. Paleontol., 56: pp. 1050-1078.

-Marintsch, Edward nad Robert Finks, .1978. Zoophycos size may indicate environmental gradients. Lethaia, 11: p. 273-279.

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Figure 1 - In the Swan River Quartzite (Ordovician) outside of Logan, Utah. These markings appear to be tubes made by burrowing that have been subsequently filled by coarser sediment from stratigraphically above.

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Figure 2 - Scalarituba. Black clay forms lining of tubes. Pine Hill Fm., Devonian, NY.

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Figure 3 - Zoophycos. Part of the Zoophycos web on bedding plane indicative of intensive reworking of sediment for food. Esopus Fm., Devonian, NY.

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Figure 4 - Zoophycos. Part of the  Zoophycos web on the bedding surface.Esopus Fm., Devonian, NY.

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Figure 5 - Zoophycos. Esopus Fm., Devonian, NY.  Side view of bed showing meniscus structures as entire bed is reworked for food.

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Figure 6 - Chondrites. Black clay forms lining of branching tubes. Esopus Fm., Devonian, NY.

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Figure 7 - Phycodes. Multiple tubular burrows emerge from a single tube. Esopus Fm., Devonian, NY.

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Figure 8 - Planolites.Burrows parallel to bedding surface.  Esopus Fm., Devonian, NY.

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Figure 9 - Skolithos and Monocraterion. Near surface vertical tubes. Esopus Fm., Devonian, NY.

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Figure 10 - Skolithos and Monocraterion. Near surface vertical tubes. Esopus Fm., Devonian, NY.