DESCRIPTION: Sole Markings are sedimentary structures found on the undersides of some strata. They commonly form when grooves, striations, or irregularities on the top of the bedding surface below the sole marking are filled with coarser sediment that eventually hardens to form a cast on the base of the overlying bed.
Figure 1 - Flute Casts on the base of a stratum. Sample is from northwest NY State, probably Devonian.
Figure 2 - Groove Casts in the bottom of a bed. Silurian Red Mt. Fm. Ringgold, GA.
Figure 3 - Sole markings in a slab of the Pennsylvanian Smithwick Sandstone. Marble Falls, TX